Written By Farman Nawaz
(According to the new syllabus of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Textbook Board)
|Chapter 1||Ideological Basis of Pakistan
|Question No.1||Discuss the meaning of Ideology of Pakistan?
|Answer:|| The collective thinking of a nation is called ideology of that nation. After establishment of Muslim society in the subcontinent the Muslims had their separate identity but they tried to amalgamate with Hindus politically to strengthen the government.
Later on after the arrival of Britons and loosening grip on the government, the Muslims of South Asia realized the need of separate identity and it gave birth to “Two Nation Theory”. Naturally it gave momentum to the idea of establishment of such a separate Muslim state where they can live freely according to Islamic principles. This collective thinking of the Muslims was called Pakistan Ideology.
|Question No. 2||Mention Kinds of Ideology.
|Answer:||Based on the factors of its formation ideologies are
of different types.
|Question No. 3||What is meant by Two Nation Theory?
|Answer:|| Two Nation Theory is based on the concept that India is inhabited by different nations. Muslims and Hindus, the two major segments of Indian society, are completely two different nations. Their culture, history, religion and even ways of living are different.
The primary purpose of this concept was to inform the Britons to consider the Muslims a separate political group whenever the government wanted to introduce any political reforms.
|Question No. 4||What Islam says about the bahviour with minorities?
|Answer:||The Holy Quran says: ‘Let there be no compulsion in religion’. In the light of such verses from Quran and sayings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) the government of Pakistan has included the following recommendations to the constituent of 1973 (article 20)…
|Question No. 5||Why Hindus opposed the Urdu Language?
|Answer:|| After the failure of war of independence 1857 – which was a joint effort of Muslims and Hindus against the British – the British introduced its own structure of education. Hindi – Urdu controversy (1867) is the event of the period when Muslims were targeted by British and Hindus were given a hope of jobs based on English education.
In Banaras, Hindus started a movement against Urdu as a national language which could cause in creation of job opportunities for Muslims in offices. This controversy widened the gap between Hindus and Muslims.
|Question No. 6||Why it was felt necessary to form Muslim League?
|Answer:||Though some Muslims leaders joined the Congress, the Muslims as a community kept aloof from it. Many events like elections for the selection of representatives to Viceroy Council, demand from Congress for the introduction of western type democracy in India and strong opposition from Hindus for the partition of Bengal compelled the Muslims to start thinking about separate political platform. Under Such circumstances, the Muslims felt the need of a political party of their own and all India Muslim League was formed in 1906.
|Question No. 7||How the Nehru Report affected the political thinking of Muslims?
|Answer:|| An all parties conference met at Delhi in 1928 to draft a future constitution for India. Moti Lal Nehru the president of the committee published its report in 1929. This report demanded dominion status for India, separate electorate for Muslims was refused and the reservation of seats for the Muslims of Bengal and Punjab was rejected.
The Muslims were surprised and puzzled at this report. Nehru report finished the possibility of Hindu Muslim unity forever. And as a result this historical point transformed Two Nation Theory into Ideology of Pakistan.
|Question No. 8||When Lahore Resolution was introduced and what it demanded?
|Answer:||On 23rd March 1940, in historical session of All India Muslim League, the Lahore resolution was introduced. In this resolution, the Indian Muslims, from the platform of Muslim League, demanded the establishment of a separate Muslim state in India. Thus the journey was completed from Two Nation Theory to Pakistan Ideology.
|Chapter 2||Making of Pakistan|
|Question No. 1||What events widened the distance between Muslims and Hindus?
|Answer:||The following events created gap between Muslims and Hindus…
1. Hindi-Urdu controversy in 1867 cautioned the Muslims that in future Hindus may not be sincere with Muslims.
2. When Muslims did not take part in the sessions of Indian National Congress so it became totally a party of Hindus and started working for the protection of Hindus rights.
3. The partition of Bengal on religious basis instead of administrative basis had annoyed Hindus as it was a serious blow to the business of Hindus and at the same time there was a hope of Muslim majority province too that could lead to the concept of separate Muslim State.
4. The decision of Gandhi Jee during Khalafat movement was also not acceptable to Muslims.
5. Nehru report in 1928 and Congress ministries after elections of 1937 was the last blow to the concept of Hindu Muslim Unity.
|Question No. 2||What proposals were given by Cripps Mission?
|Answer:||To gain the support of Indians during World War II and to handle the agitation of Congress for complete independence, Sir Stafford Cripps offered some proposals to the Indian politicians.
1. Indian liberation at the end of the war.
2. Formation of Constituent Assembly by proportional representation also comprising autonomous states to make future constitution for India.
3. Provinces to be given right to opt for making independent governments out of the Union.
|Question No. 3||Why the Congress and Muslim League rejected the Cripps mission proposals?
|Answer:|| Congress rejected these proposals on the basis that there were no immediate steps for Indian independence. Secondly Congress felt the smell of Pakistan because it proposed the provinces were free to choose whether to join the Union or to stay out.
Muslim League also rejected it because it did not clearly admit its demand for Pakistan. Secondly British did not take Muslim League in confidence before announcement of Cripps offer.
|Question No. 4||Why the Shimla Conference was unsuccessful?
|Answer:|| The Wavell Plan (1945) proposed the reformation of Administrative Council of Governor General. To discuss the plan, Viceroy called the leading Indian politicians to Shimla. But there came severe differences between Congress, Muslim League and Unionist Party of Punjab regarding representation of Hindu Muslim proportion and nomination of representatives of other sects.
Stand of Quaid -i- Azam was of the view that all the five Muslim representatives will be nominated by Muslim League while Mollana Abdul Kalam Azad, Congress and Khizar Hayat Twana of Unionist Party opposed Quaid -i- Azam that he will nominate the Muslim representatives.
So Shimla Conferences ended in failure and it was decided that elections will be held to know the party representative position.
|Question No. 5||How the Muslim League get success in general elections of 1945-46?
|Answer:||The defeated party of 1937 elections Muslim League took full part in the elections of 1945-46. Muslim League contested elections on the slogan of “Pakistan”. Quaid-i-Azam addressed the Msulims and said that if they want to see the future of the Muslims safe, then they should give hands to Muslim League for Pakistan otherwise they will go into permanent slavery of the Congress. It was a kind of Referendum for Pakistan. Muslim League won all 30 seats (Total 100) reserved for Muslims in Central assembly and 92% of provincial assemblies seats. Only in Khyber PakhtoonKhwa Muslim League could not get majority.
|Question No. 6||What demands were given in the session of legislature in 1946?|
|Answer:||In the session the following demands were presented…
1. Quaid-e-Azam stressed upon demand for Pakistan.
2. Hussian Shaheed Saharwarti from Bengal submitted aresolution in which an independent and autonomous Pakistan was demanded consisting of Punjab, KPK, Baluchistan, Sind in the North West and Asam and Bengal in North East.
3. It was emphasized that neither United India nor one legislative assembly is acceptable.
4. In case separate legislative assemblies would not be formed for Pakistan and Hindustan then Muslim league will not join interim government.
|Question No. 7||How the formation of interim government was made in 1946-47?
|Answer:||After consulting the Cabinet Mission, Viceroy announced on 16th June 1946 that in interim government Congress will have six, Muslim League five and minorities three representative. No party will have the right to criticize the nominated candidate. Equal important departments will be given to both the parties. It was also notified that if any party will not have to accept the cabinet Mission proposals, will not be included in the interim government. In such condition Viceroy will invite other party to form the interim government.
|Question No. 8||How the Congress felt that they have done mistake of giving Finance Ministry to Muslim League?
|Answer:||Congress was repentant to give Finance Ministry to Muslim League because all the Congress ministers were on the mercy of Ministry of Finance. Taxes were levied on industrialists to meet the government expenditures. Hindu industrialists showed grievances to the Congress against imposition of Tax. These people had provided money to Congress for elections but Congress could not help them.
|Question No. 9||Why the Quaid-e-Azam was given the title of “Ambassador of Hindu Muslim Unity”?
|Answer:|| When British gave the freedom of political struggle to Indians so different parties like Congress and Muslim League appeared on the horizon of united India. Quaid-e-Azam joined Congress in 1906. In 1913 he also joined Muslim League but still remained member of Congress till 1920.
During this period he worked for the Hindu-Muslim unity because it was feared that English government is using ‘Divide and Rule’ technique to rule India. He brought these two parties closer and it was possible only because of his efforts that both these parties agreed on Lucknow Pact in 1906. His efforts earned him the title of “The Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity”.
|Question No. 10||What methods adopted by Quaid-e-Azam of being the best leader?
|Answer:|| Quaid-e-Azam fought the war of independence within the limits of law for his whole life and never acted against the law. He always challenged the British, congress and other leaders with the weapon of arguments against the violence.
He always consulted his colleagues and workers before talking a decision and once he took decision, he stood on that and never shown any weakness. Nelson Mandela considers the freedom movement of Quaid-e-Azam as a source of guidance for him.
|Chapter 3||Land of Pakistan
|Question No. 1||Discuss the location of Pakistan and its importance.
|Answer:|| Pakistan is located in the North Western part of South Asia in close proximity of international and regional powers like Russia, China and India. Pakistan provides transit trade to Afghanistan and Central Asian States. Pakistan is connected by Karakorum Highway with China. It is in the centre of Islamic world and in close proximity to oil producing states of Middle East and Central Asia. Because of its sensitive locality Pakistan always remained a ‘favorite’ of Western powers.
|Question No. 2||Describe the four boundaries of Pakistan?|
|Answer:||1. In the North East of Pakistan shares 585 kilometers border with China.
2. In the East Pakistan has common border of 1610 kilometers with India. It was demarcated by Redcliff Commission.
3. In the North West Pak-Afghan border line, know as Durand Line, is 2250 Kilometers long. It was demarcated in 1893. In the North narrow strip of Wakhan of Afghanistan separates Pakistan from Tajikistan.
4. In the West Pakistan shares border of 832 Kilometers with Iran.
5. In the North East is the disputed border with Kashmir.
6. The Coastal strip with Arabian Sea in the South is 1046 kilometers long.
|Question No. 3||Write short notes on the following:
a. Plateau b. plains c. Deserts
d. Coastal Areas
1. Potohar Plateau (300 to 600 meters height): it is situated in the North of Islamabad between river Jehlam and Indus. River Swan is the river and Sakesar is the important peak of this plateau. Its important minerals are salt, gypsum, lime stone, coal and mineral oil.
2. Baluchistan Plateau ( 600 to 3000 meters height): It is situated in the South West of Pakistan. Chaghi, Siahan and Central Makran are its important ranges. The famous salty water lake “ Hamun Mashkhel” is also situated in it.
b. Plains: The Indus river plain is one of the fertile
plains of the world. It is divided into two
The Upper Indus Plain: The upper Indus plain consists of province Punjab. The river Indus, Jehlum, Chanab, Ravi and Setluj flow in it. These rivers divide the land into doaabas. This plain is 400 to 1200 feet high from the sea level.
The lower Indus Plain: It is leveled land stretching from Mithankot to Arabain sea. Its hight from the sea level is 20 to 400 feet and makes gentle slope that’s why river flows very slowly and makes delta.
c. Deserts: Some plain areas of Pakistan are
deserts. Desserts are covered with sand and rainfall is very low. Underground water level is deep. The famous deserts of Pakistan are Thall, Choolistan, Nara and Thurparkar, Chaghi and Kharan.
d. Coastal areas: Arabian Sea is in the South of Pakistan. The length of the coastal area is 1046 kilometers stretching from Run Kutch in Sindh to Iranian border in Baluchistan. It consists of two parts i.e. Sindh coast and Baluchistan Coast. In Sindh, Karachi and Port Qasim and in Baluchistan, Gawadar Port are famous ports of Pakistan.
|Question No. 4||What is the difference between weather and climate?
|Answer:||The average condition of temperature, humidity, air pressure and rainfall of place for long time (average 30 years) is called climate, whereas if it is for a short time i.e. a day or a week then it is called weather.
|Question No. 5||What is glacier? What are the important glaciers of Pakistan?
|Answer:||A huge mass of ice when start movement due to gravitational pull and its material pressure, is called glacier. Following are the important glaciers of Pakistan:
Question No. 6
What are environmental hazards?
|Answer:||Any action or process which endangers the environment is called environmental hazards. Pollution – air, water, soil, noise – and natural calamities – earthquake, Tsunami, flood, wind, rain, storm, drought, soil erosion – create disturbances in the environment. Environmental hazards affects climate and causes dangers for human life.|
|Chapter No. 4||History of Pakistan|
|Question No. 1||Mention the three causes, due to which establishment of Pakistan was an important event?
|Answer:||The establishment of Pakistan is considered to be the important event due to the following three causes:
1. Pakistan was established by constitutional and political effort.
2. Pakistan was liberated from British slavery.
3. Establishment of a Muslim state with the name of Pakistan in the British India.
|Question No. 2||What were the golden principles highlighted by Quaid-e-Azam to solve the initial problems of Pakistan?
|Answer:||The guiding principles of Quaid-e-Azam…
1. Need of patience for rehabilitation of refuges.
2. For safety of the country defense of the country was given priority.
3. To avoid provincial and racial prejudices.
4. Government servants to perform duties as
servant of the people.
5. Islamic equality and social justice.
6. Young generation to give attention to education and avoid politics of agitation.
7. Avoidance of curse of influence, nepotism,
corruption, hoarding and profiteering, and
|Question No. 3||What decision was taken for the accession of the states at the time of partition of India?
|Answer:||560 princely states were given an option to live independent or to accede with one of the two states, Pakistan or India. Along with these options it was also abiding on the states to not to ignore the following rules:
1. Geographical location of the states.
2. Decision of the accession should be
according to the will of the people.
|Question No. 4||Discuss the points of resolution of Security Council for the solution of Kashmir?
|Answer:||The Security Council passed to resolutions on 12th Augusts 1948 and on 5th January 1949. Following are the main points:
1. War may be stooped immediately and a cease fire line may be drawn between held Kashmir and Azad Kashmir under the supervision of a United Nations Commission.
2. Both governments may withdraw their troops from Kashmir.
3. A referendum may be managed under the supervision of United Nations.
|Question No. 5||Discuss the Objective Resolution and its importance.
|Answer:|| This resolution was passed on 12th March 1949. To give Islamic touch to the constitution Objective resolution has all those necessary points like limits of the legislature, power of the state, democracy, freedom, tolerance, social justice, minorities, human rights, independence of judiciary and system of the government.
It has got the status of fundamental document in the constitution making history and on the basis of which the upcoming constitutions were to be framed. The objective resolution remained a part of all the constitutions as a preamble.
|Question No. 6||How Ayub Khan got success in the elections of 1965?
|Answer:|| Ayub Khan using his dictatorial powers intrigued to become president of the Muslim League but under the leadership of Mian Dultana opposed the decision and formed Council Muslim League against the Conventional Muslim League of Ayub.
In general elections of 1965, all the opposition parties including Council Muslim League supported Miss Fatima Jinnah against Ayub. Awami League, Jummat-e-Islami National Awami Party supported Ayub Khan.
Governors of East and West Pakistan used government machinery against Fatima Jinnah and as a result she lost the election.
|Question No. 7||What is Tashkent Accord?
|Answer:|| The 1965 war started on 6th September. India claimed that Pakistani forces are intruding in Kashmir and as a result attacked the Pakistani borders in Sialkot, Lahore and Qasoor.
After 17-days war Russia offered arbitration and after cease fire an accord was signed between Pakistan in India at Tashkent – now a city of Uzbekistan.
This accord consisting of 9 points, stressed to solve the mutual disputes through dialogue.
|Question No. 8||How came decline of Ayub Khan and start of movement for democracy?
|Answer:|| Though Pakistan won the war of 1965 but on political grounds it brought many changes in the country. East Pakistan (Bangladesh) people were of the opinion that their land was at the mercy of Indian forces and proper arrangements were not made to protect them.
Sheikh Mujeeb Rehman started a political movement against Ayub and similarly Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto established Peoples Party and gained popularity. Along with political parties students, peasants, labour, lawyers, and government servants joined the movement against Ayub.
Though Ayub tried to handle the situation by convening Round Table Conference but he was not successful and had to leave the office.
|Question No. 9||Discuss the main points of Legal Frame Work Order (LFO).
|Answer:||LFO was a constitutional draft to help the future government to make constitution. Its main points are the following:
1. Islamic ideology will be safeguarded in the future constitution.
2. System of government will be federal.
3. Safety will be given in constitution to fundamental rights, adult franchise and freedom of judiciary.
4. Maximum provincial autonomy will be given but centre will be strong.
5. Equal opportunities will be provided and economic inequalities will be removed from all parts of Pakistan.
6. National assembly will consist of 313 seats.
7. New parliament will have to make constitution with 120 days otherwise it will be dismissed automatically.
|Question No. 10||What were the results of general elections of 1970?
|Answer:|| Total 63 parties took part in the elections. In East Pakistan Awami League of Sheikh Mujeeb Rehman got 167 seats out of 169 and in West Pakistan, Pakistan People’s Party of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto got 87 seats out of 138.
Awami League could not take any seat in West Pakistan and similarly Pakistan People’s Party failed to take any seat in East Pakistan. PPP got success in Punjab and Sindh while National Awami Party and Jamiat-e-Ullema Islam were successful in Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa and Baluchistan.
|Ideological Basis of Pakistan|
|Question No. 1||What are the sources of Pakistan Ideology? Discuss the need and importance of ideology.
|Answer:|| Sources of Pakistan Ideology:
The factors that determine an ideology is called its sources. These factors can be religious and moral values, culture and civilization, history and social conditions of a nation. Pakistan ideology at the same time was a religious, political, and of economic character. The sources of Pakistan ideology can be classified in the following way.
1. Religious: The religious viewpoint was to have such a state where Muslims of South Asia can spend their lives according to Islamic principles.
2. Political: It was the aim to protect Muslims of South Asia from the domination of Hindus majority and to end the enmity for ever.
3. Economical: According to economic point of view to end the economic exploitation and provision of equal opportunities to all the citizens.
Need and importance of ideology: To get the national goals ideology leads the nation in the right direction. Ideology helps in achieving the following goals:
1. National Unity: Ideology is the name of same thinking that’s why it keeps the people united and differences are decreased.
2. Legislation: ideology helps the nation to make its laws and constitution because the guiding principles are mentioned in the ideology.
3. Protection from cultural invasion: Ideology protects the nation from the cultural invasion of other nations.
4. Source of determination: Ideology is the source of determination for a nation in the time of hardships.
5. National Identity: Ideology plays a vital role in shaping the identity of a nation and keeping its moral high.
6. Purposeful life: Ideology persuades a nation towards a purposeful life.
7. National development: Ideology guides towards knowledge, spiritualism, humanism and material development.
|Question No. 2||Write note on the basis and elements of Pakistan ideology.|
|Answer:|| Islam played a major role in molding the public opinion of the Muslims of South Asia to gather around the Muslim League to strengthen the concept of separate Muslim state. So Islam became the base of Pakistan ideology. Following are the elements of the Pakistan Ideology.
1. Belief on Toheed: To protect political rights of Muslims of South Asia the concept of nationalism was based on the religion Islam and Toheed. The conversion of the first individual of India was declared as the emergence of a new nation.
2. Islamic system of life: Islam covers all the spheres of life including social, political and economic needs of humans. Therefore it was believed that a separate moderate and progressive society in the shape of Pakistan will provide a permanent solution of the problems.
3. Islamic concept of government: According to Islam the position of the human beings is of assistant (Naib) and sovereignty belongs to Allah. Muslims of South Asia wanted such a state where they can exercise to use Islamic concept of government.
4. Social Justice and equality: In united India under the colonial rule of the British Muslims and low caste Hindus were deprived of their rights and kept backward socially, politically and economically. The ideology of Pakistan which was based on Islam aimed to establish such a society where there is no discrimination on the bases of religion, colour, and race.
5. Islamic Democracy: The concept of western democracy is based on the idea of majority is authority. Thus any one having enough votes can rule the country but according to Islamic democracy only the capable, truthful, careful and pious persons have the right to rule.
6. Equal rights of Minorities: Non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state have an equal social, political and economical status with the Muslim citizens. Therefore rights of the non-Muslims are guaranteed in the constitution of Pakistan.
|Question No. 3||Mention the evolution of Pakistan Ideology?
|Answer:||Efforts for freedom and united Indian nationality: As far as the Greater Mughals were alive they wisely ruled India. But later on after their death the Lesser Mughals could not manage to unite Indians and the Britons got an opportunity to occupy India.
But still Muslim leaders and scholars tried to get freedom from Britons and to live peacefully Indians. The war of Independence 1857 which was fought by Muslims and Hindus jointly against the East India Company was an example of this unity.
But later on when Hindus got English Educated and came closer to Britons then Muslims started thinking for their separate political identity. It gave birth to Two Nation theory.
Two Nation Theory: After Hindu-Urdu controversy at Banaras in 1867, leaders like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan too expressed their concerns about Hindus attitude and it was decided that Muslims should be dealt separately in case government want to introduce reforms.
Establishment of political parties: After establishment of Indian National Congress in 1885 and Hindus domination on it, Muslims started to think about their own separate political party and in 1906 All India Muslim League was established. Even in the presence of Two Nation Theory, still there was concept of united struggle against the British and that’s why Lucknow Pact was signed in 1916 between Muslim League and Congress.
Separation of Ways: Quaid-e-Azam is considered “Ambassador of Hindu- Muslim Unity” but after Nehru Report (1929) and Hindus Ministries of 1937, he had to change his mind. In 1930 at Allahabad Allama Iqbal in the annual session of Muslim League clearly demanded a separate Muslim State and after his death, in 1940 at Iqbal park Lahore Muslim League presented Lahore Resolution and demanded a separate Muslim State for the Muslims of South Asia where they can live according the teachings of Islam. Thus Two Nation Theory was transformed in Pakistan Ideology.
|Question No. 4||How did Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah explain Pakistan Ideology?
|Answer:|| Ideology of Pakistan can be better understood by the sayings of these two great leaders of the subcontinent. Both referred to the socio-cultural and religious difference of between Muslims and Hindus and highlighted the need for a separate state for Muslims. 0
Allama Iqbal gave the concept of a separate Muslim state and Quaid-e-Azam gave it a practical shape. These two leaders at different times in their speeches explained Pakistan Ideology.
Allama Muhammad Iqbal: Iqbal’s speech in 1930 at Allahabad is landmark in the history of Pakistan movement because for the first time it gave concept of separate homeland for Muslims of the Subcontinent.
He said “India is the place of such human groups who belong to different races, speak different languages and follow different religions. Principles of Western democracy cannot be introduced in India. So the demand of Muslims for the establishment of a Muslim State in India is completely legitimate”.
Further he clarified “I would like to see, the Punjab, the North West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into single state. It appears to be the destiny of the Muslims of North Western areas”.
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah: On 23rd March 1940, in the historical session of Muslim League in Lahore, he told in his presidential address: “Hinduism and Islam are not only two religions, but two different social systems. That is why this idea should be understand as a dream that Muslims and Hindus could ever be adopted the status of a united Nation. Hindus and Muslims belong to two different civilizations which are based on such ideas and thinking those are against each other”.
After the establishment of Pakistan, Quaid-a-Azam explained Pakistan ideology and Pakistan movement as: “Our mission was the establishment of a state where we can live like free people in our own cultural setup necessary for the promotion of social justice and Islamic ideology”.
|Chapter No. 2||Making of Pakistan|
|Question No. 1||What do you know about Lahore resolution? What is its importance in Pakistan movement?
|Answer:|| The annual session of All India Muslim League was held in Lahore from 22nd March to 24th March 1940. The Lahore resolution was introduced by Maulvi Fazl-Ul-Haq from Bengal on 23rd March 1940 and it was approved by 24th March 1940. Muslim leaders from all over the subcontinent supported the resolution.
This resolution stated “No such constitution plan will be practicable and acceptable for Muslims in this country which deny the following principles. That the geographically contiguous units be demarcated into regions… in which the Muslims are numerically a majority, as North Western and Eastern zones off India should be grouped to constitute independent states in which the constituent units shall be autonomous and sovereign”.
Reaction against the resolution: After approval this resolution was declared impracticable by some people. The Hindu newspapers gave it the name of Pakistan Resolution but Muslim League adopted this name.
Role in Pakistan Movement: Pakistan Resolution was basically an announcement of political destiny of the Muslims of the Subcontinent. The Muslims gathered under the leadership of Quaid-e-Azam who gave new meaning and shape to their mission for liberty.
Quaid-e-Azam tried to unite the Muslims of subcontinent on one platform. He visited different parts of India and informed Muslims about wrong policies of Indian national Congress, due to which the Muslims’ identity will be in danger. He tried his best to get support of other prominent Muslims leaders and fortunate he was successful in this mission.
At first British rulers did not give any importance to the Lahore Resolution but later on as a result of the disciplined campaign of the Muslims under the guidance of Quaid-e-Azam, they accepted the demand for Pakistan.
|Question No. 2||Discuss in detail the C.R Formula and Ghandhi Jinnah Talks.
|Answer:||C.R Formula (1944): In Cripps proposals the option “Provinces to be given right to opt for making independent governments out of the Union” British has shown its willingness for the partition of India. Now Congress during the war tried its best to compel British to leave India and to transfer the powers to Congress.
Muslim League also tried to warn the British about the consequences of one sided decision. At this occasion Congress leader Raj Gopal Acharia tried to bring together both the parties. Acharia put a resolution in Madras assembly whose main points are the following.
1. A Request from Muslim League: Muslim league will cooperate with Congress regarding demand of Indian liberation and interim period.
2. Referendum for partition: After war a commission will determine Muslim majority provinces and referendum will be held to decide separation from India.
3. Agreements in case of separation: In state of separation a mutual agreement will be made regarding defense, commerce, communication and other important fields.
These recommendations were rejected by Congress and Acharia was personally targeted. He resigned from Congress and assembly. Quaid-e-Azam also indicated some flaws in the proposals.
Ghandhi Jinnah Talks (1944): In the light of C.R Formula talks were held between Quaid-e-Azam and Gandhi but Gandhi participated in his personal capacity not as representative of Congress.
Ghandi insisted on united Indian nationality and opposed the concept of separate Muslim nationality on the grounds that in case all the Hindus with the passage of time embrace Islam even then their nationality will remain the same – Indian. But Quid-e-Azam strongly supported separate nationality of Muslims on the basis of religion, culture, civilization, language, literature, art, values, laws, history, customs and tradition.
Though these talks were unsuccessful but Gandhi for the first time was brought to discuss the partition of India and Quaid-e-Azam also tried to remove doubts about Pakistan.
|Question No. 3||What is cabinet Mission Plan? What are its aim and objectives?
|Answer:|| Aim and Objectives: After the general elections of 1945-46, the British government sent a Cabinet Mission with new constitutional proposals to end the deadlock between Congress and Muslim League and to search out the possible solution of the Indian problems.
Cabinet Mission heard the Muslim League’s opinion about causes of separation from Hindus and Congress opinion of opposition of idea of Pakistan on the basis that it is impossible practically. The efforts for compromise failed as usual and the Cabinet Mission then framed and announced their own plan known as the Cabinet Mission Plan.
Proposals of Cabinet Mission: The proposals can be divided into two parts, one short term and second the long term proposals. According to Short term proposals the party which will accept these proposals will be invited to be included in the interim government. As per long term proposals
· India was not be partitioned and there was to be one central government to deal with foreign affairs, defense, and communications.
It was mentioned that all provinces of India will be divided into three groups.
· Group A: Hindu majority provinces i.e. UP, Madras, Bombay, United provinces, Uresa and Bihar.
· Group B: Muslim majority provinces i.e. Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan and Sind.
· Group C: Muslim majority provinces of Asam and Bengal.
It was also mentioned that if any province desired separation from any group after ten years, will have the right of separation.
These proposals were accepted by Muslim League in the hope that there was aspect of separation while Congress accepted these proposals because apparently it did not accepted Muslim League demand of Pakistan.
|Question No. 4||What is 3rd June Plan? How according to this plan, partition of India and establishment of Pakistan took place?
|Answer:|| The brutal massacre through out India convinced Lord Mountbatten to divide India. He invited al the leaders of various political parties and placed before them the procedure to be followed for the transfer of power. His plan known as 3rd June plan was approved by London and accepted by the Congress, the Muslim League and the Sikhs.
Following are the main points of 3rd June Plan:
1. Partition of Punjab and Bengal: Separate sessions of Muslims and non-Muslim members of Punjab and Bengal assemblies will decide whether to divide the respective provinces or not.
2. Demarcation: A commission will determine the boundaries of provinces.
3. Sind, KPK, Baluchistan and Sylhet: Special session of provincial assembly of Sind will decide to join India or Pakistan. Referendum will be held in KPK and District Sylhet of Bengal to know the will of people regarding succession with India or Pakistan. While Shahi Jirga and Members of Municipal Committee Quetta will decide the succession of Baluchistan.
Partition of India and Establishment of Pakistan:
Redcliff Award: After approval from the Muslim League and Congress Boundary commission was setup to demarcate the province of Sindh and Bengal. British lawyer Redcliff was appointed as Chairman.
As Congress and Muslim League could agree on any point so Redcliff gave his own decision. But some Muslim majority areas were given to India and later on water canal disputes were created due to the wrong decision about Head Works in Gordaspur. Similarly Calcutta the capital of Bengal and economic centre was given to India.
Though there were injustices in Redcliff Award but it was accepted by Muslim League as whole for the sake of transfer of power. Quaid-e-Azam said “Political decisions are made instead of constitutional but as a prestigious nation we are bound of this award”.
According to 3rd June Plan, Muslim majority of Eastern Bengal and Western Punjab voted in favour of Pakistan. Provincial assembly of Sindh, Shahi Jirga of Baluchistan and people of KPK decided to join Pakistan.
Quaid-e-Azam was elected as president on 11the August 1947 and Pakistan came into being on 14th August 1947.
|Question No. 5||Discuss the British colonization, its aims and policies?
|Answer:||Definition of Colonization: Colonization occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area. Colonialism refers to Western European countries’ colonization of lands mainly in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
British Colonization: After Industrial revolution in Europe, industrialist searched markets for their products outside Europe. The British reached India to obtain cheap raw material and to sell its products. After getting some economical privileges from Mughal courts they started making themselves strong politically and militarily.
The factors that caused in the downfall of Mughals and success of British are the following:
1. Internal conflicts: The mutual indifferences, lack of interest of the rulers and the worsening condition of peace provided an opportunity to the British for making place in India.
2. Modern education: The development of modern art and science gave them upper hand over Indians.
3. Old system of government: The industrial revolution also brought democratic values in Europe but here in India the old method of kingship was prevalent. This added fuel to the internal conflicts.
Aims of Colonization: Britain discovered the Indian sub-continent when it was looking to expand its vast empire. The East India Company was formed and came to recognize that India was a hub of trade and home to many natural resources. This situation made India an attractive colony to Britain as it seemed unquestionable that Britain would benefit from the situation. Britain did benefit from the situation.
Policies of Colonial Raj:
1. Administration: British having superior education than the Indians, set up effective administrative machinery to rule over India. India was divided into provinces and districts for better administration.
2. Education system: Though it is a fact that there was class distribution in the educational system of British as different educational institutions were set up for rich and poor but it is also fact that British introduced modern scientific education in India.
3. Economic system: Before the coming of British to India, India was exporting goods to its neighboring countries but British destroyed the trade of India by imposing taxes on the goods. The effects of Industrial of Europe were not brought to India and therefore India which once was exporting now started importing goods.
4. Racial discrimination: Unlike Mughals who became part of Indian society, English people, apart from some missionaries, remained separate from the locals. Separate parks, clubs, and hotels were established for themselves where entry of the Indians was prohibited. This affected the psychology of the Indians.
5. Divide and Rule strategy: In the rising of 1857, the Hindus and Muslims worked in complete harmony which was not a pleasant development for the British. Therefore, the British adopted the policy of “Divide and Rule” to weaken the Indian people.
|Chapter 3||Land of Pakistan
|Question No. 1||Write a note on mountain ranges of Pakistan?|
|Answer:||Pakistan is a blessed country to have the major mountain ranges in the world. These mountain ranges are classified as
1. Northern Mountains
2. North Western and Western Mountains.
1. Northern Mountains:
Northern Areas of Pakistan, Azad Kashmir, KPK, and Northern areas of Punjab lie in these mountains. Murree, Gilgit, Battgram, Mansehra, abbotabad and Kaghan also lie in these mountains. These mountains are covered with conifer trees.
Northern mountains are divided into two parts.
I. The Himalayan Range.
II. The Karakorum Range.
i. The Himalayan Range: it stretches from Asam to the River Indus. Its minor ranges are
a. The Shiwalik Range: its altitude varies from 600 to 1200 meters. It is situated in the north of plain area of Punjab.
b. Pir Punjal Range: it is also called lesser Himalayas. It is situated in the north of Siwalik range. Its altitude varies from 1800 to 4600 meters.
c. The Central Himalayas: These are in the north of Pakistan. The average hight is 6000 meters. The highest peak is Nanga Parbat.
ii. The Karakorum range: This lies to the north of Himalayas and its average altitude is 6100 meters. K-2 (8611 meters) is highest peak of this range. Khunjrab and Karakorum passes are the important passes of this range.
2. North Western and western Mountain ranges:
These mountains spread in the Western and North Western parts of Pakistan. These mountains make the natural boarder between Pakistan and Afghanistan. These mountains are further divided into the following important ranges.
a. Hindukush Range: it is situated in Chitral and western part of Northern Areas. Tirchmir is the highest peak, River Chitral is the important river and Khyber Pass the historical pass of this range.
b. Koh-e-Sufaid: its average height is 3600 meters. Seeka Ram Sar is the highest peak of this range.
c. Waziristan Hills: The average altitude is 1500 to 3000 meters. Miran Shah and Wana are located in this range.
d. The Suleiman range: It starts from river Gomal and spread upto 450 km to the East. Takht-e-Suleiman is the highest peak.
e. Kirthar Range: It is in the South of Koh-e-Suleiman and separates lower Indus basin from Baluchistan.
|Question No. 2||Pakistan is divided into how many climatic regions? Describe each one in detail.
|Answer:|| Pakistan is situated in the subtropical region; therefore, its climate is hot ant dry. Pakistan can be divided into eight climatic regions.
1. High lands:
a. Because of high altitude temperature is low, winter is extremely cold with heavy rainfall and snowfall.
b. Due to non-availability of Monsoon winds in summer, rainfall is low but weather is pleasant.
c. Northern areas and parts of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa are in this region.
2. Humid Mountainous region:
a. These are low altitude mountain areas like Murree, Gilyat and Parhachinar.
b. Summer temperature is moderate with heavy rainfall.
c. Abundant rainfall and snowfall in winter because of western winds.
3. Semi-dry mountainous region:
a. These mountain areas are of low alltidue consisting of regions like Quetta, Qilla Saifullah and Qalat.
b. Western winds casues rainfall and snowfall in winter.
c. Summer is moderate and dry.
4. Semi-Humid plain region:
a. This region includes Sialkot, Gujrat and Islamabad.
b. Monsoon rainfall occurs in summer but temperature is high.
c. Winter is dry and moderate.
5. Semi-dry plain region:
a. Rainfall is low due to low Monsoon and western winds.
b. Temperature is high in summer.
c. Winder is try and moderate.
d. Plain areas of northern Punjab and Peshawar valley are in this region.
6. Semi-arid region:
a. Low rainfall with hot summers and mild winters.
b. Most of Sindh, Southern Punjab and central Baluchistan are is this region
7. Arid region:
a. Due to very small amount rainfall there is no agriculture in this region.
b. Summer is extremely hot and winter is mild.
c. Therparker, Choolistan Thall and Kharan deserts are included in this region.
8. Coastal Areas:
a. In southern coastal strip of Pakistan weather remains moderate with low rainfall.
b. Summer is hot and winter is mild.
c. Port Qasmi, Karachi and Gawadar ports are in this region.
|Question No. 3||What do you know about the natural vegetation of Pakistan?|
|Answer:||Natural vegetations are the vital part of our environment. In Pakistan only 4.8 % of the land is covered with forests. These forests play an important role in keeping the environment clean, prevent soil erosion and attract tourists.
The forests found in Pakistan are of the following types:
1. High Land forests:
1. These forests are found in Northern areas, Chitral, Dir, Kohistan and Galliyat etc.
2. These are evergreen forests and Deudar and Pine are found here, which are used for furniture.
2. Coniferous Forests:
1. These forests are found in Northern areas (Abbotabad, Mansehra, Murree) and Highlands of Quetta and Qalat.
2. The coniferous, Pine and Deudar are important trees of these forests.
3. The forests are evergreen and its trees are used as timber.
3. The Riverain or Belta forests:
1. These forests are found at the banks of Indus River and its tributaries.
2. Shisham and Babul are important trees.
3. Provides very fine and hardwood for furniture.
4. Coastal Forests:
1. These forests are found on the Delta of river Indus and river Hub.
2. Its trees are of small size of 3 to 6 meters and can survive in salty water.
3. These trees are used as timer.
5. Artificial forests:
1. These are planted forests.
2. These forests are found in Changa Manga near Lahore, Thall Desert, Sahiwal, Ghulam Muhammad and Guddu Barrage.
3. Shisham, Acacia, and Eucalyptus are its important trees.
6. Dry and Shrub Forests:
1. These forests are also called deserts or arid forests.
2. These forests are mainly found in Indus plains and arid regions of Baluchistan
3. The main trees are Acacia, Berry, Karid and Oak.
|Question No. 4||What is natural region? Give details of the natural regions of Pakistan.|
|Answer:||Natural Region: The area where physical features e.g. climate, vegetation, animals and activities of the human beings are the same, is called a natural region.
Pakistan is divided into the following natural regions:
1. Plain region:
1. This region is important for agriculture because of the low slope and availability of water.
2. As it is the most productive area of Pakistan therefore it is thickly populated.
3. 80% cultivable are of Pakistan is situated here, producing cotton, wheat, rice, and sugar cane.
4. The big cities of Pakistan like Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujrawala, Sukkur and Hyderabad are found here.
2. The Arid region:
1. Mainly it is desert area and less productive.
2. Because of the intesnse shortage of rainfall most of the people are nomad.
3. The desert of Thal, Choolistan and most of Thar have been brought under cultivation through canal system
3. The Coastal area:
1. The southern area of Pakistan including Delta of Indus River, Karachi coast and Makran Coast is called coastal area.
2. Temperature is moderate because of sea breeze.
3. Because of gentle slope marchy areas are also found.
4. The main occupation of the people of this area is fishing and trade.
5. Karachi is a thickly populated area and business centre of this region.
4. Dry and semi-dry mountainous region:
1. These are the extreme north and South West mountainous areas.
2. This is the driest region of Pakistan with very low rainfall.
3. Winters are severe that’s why cultivation is not possible. People migrate towards plain areas in winter.
4. Summers are mild.
5. Main occupation of the people is cattle rearing.
6. Main agricultural products are apple, grapes, peaches and dry fruits.
5. Humid and sub humid mountainous region:
1. This region includes Shiwalik, Pir Punjal, Hindukush, and parts of Koh-e-Sufaid, Murree, Swat, Abbottabad and Parhachinar.
2. Due to heavy rainfall these mountains contain evergreen forests.
3. These forests are home for wild life and keep the environment clean.
|Question No. 5||Discuss the environmental problems of Pakistan?|
|Answer:||Environmental problems began to be felt due to increase in world population, continuous expansion of industries and ever rising use of motor vehicles. Some of the major environmental problems are discussed below:-
1. Water Logging and salinity: A vast area of Pakistan has been destroyed by water logging and salinity. When underground water level become so high that it comes on the surface of the earth it is called water logging. This also brings underground salt to the surface which is left after evaporation of water, this is called salinity.
The area affected by water logging and salinity is a great cause of low production as this land is not cultivable. This problem can be controlled by
proper sewerage system, plantation of tress, cementing of canals and installation of tube wells.
2. Deforestation: Forests play an important part in economy as well as in the environment of a country. Following are the main cause of deforestation in Pakistan.
a) Forests are removed and the land is being used for agriculture.
b) Forests are removed to clear the land for urban population.
c) Many roads are being constructed by cutting the trees.
d) Trees are cut down to use as fuel and timber.
e) Forests are utilized as grazing grounds.
To save forests the following steps should be taken.
1. New plants must be planted in the areas where trees are cut down.
2. Low quality wood forests can be planted to save high valued forests from cutting down.
3. Public awareness can be created.
4. Strict rules can be made to decrease deforestation.
3. Desertification: Desertification means changing of fertile land into deserts. Due to low rainfall most of the vegetation is vanishing from the land making it barren, which cannot be made cultivable easily again. There are two causes of desertification:
a) Environmental factor like no rainfall and soil erosion.
b) Human interference like overgrazing and soil pollution.
Soil pollution, soil erosion and overgrazing can be controlled by adopting proper mechanisms.
4. Pollution: There is a balance maintained by nature between different factors of our environment and any change which disturb this balance is called pollution. Different kinds of pollution like air, land and water pollution are also faced by Pakistan.
Air pollution is caused because of smoke and excessive amount of carbon dioxide emitted by factories and vehicles. Water pollution is caused by highly poisonous chemicals coming out of factories and allowed to flow in drains which join the rivers. Land pollution is the result of over population.
Efforts should be made on national level and mass level to control the environment pollution. General awareness should be created in the people.
|Chapter No. 4||History of Pakistan|
|Question No. 1||What do you know about the initial problems of Pakistan?|
|Answer:||After establishment in August 1947 Pakistan faced different administrative, political, economic and social problems.
1. Migration of government servants to India: Huge shifting of population created many problems for Pakistani government. Most of the clerks, teachers, doctors and experts of other departments migrated to India. Pakistan faced deficiency of technical people in different walks of life.
2. Non-availability of government buildings: Due to non-availability of government buildings offices of the federal government were setup military barracks, necessary equipments and office record was not available for running these offices.
3. Refuges accommodation: Pakistan had a terrible refuge problem. Approximately eight million Muslims fled to Pakistan. The new government had to provide for them out of a limited supply of resources.
4. Division of assets: According to the division of assets by the British government between Pakistan and India, Rs. 75 crore came as the share of Pakistan. But unluckily only Rs. 20 crore were paid to Pakistan initially besides military assets.
5. Death of leaders: After the deaths of the early leaders, Quaid-e-Azam in 1948 and Liaqat Ali Khan in 1951, there were no more inspirational leader who could compete properly with those terrible conditions.
6. Kashmir issue: Kashmir was an open wound even after the UN ceasefire. It kept tension high between India and Pakistan when what was needed was cooperation. Much more money had to be devoted to defense – money which was desperately needed to build up the state.
7. Supply of water: Indian government closed the head works of Pakistani canals on 1st April 1948 which destroyed crops in Punjab. Though water supply was restored after an interim agreement but it was in 1960 when with the help of World Bank this issue was solved permanently by signing Indus Basin treaty.
8. Constitution Making: For the time being the Act of 1935 and act of 1947 were adopted with certain amendments. First session of the constituent assembly of Pakistan was held in Karachi on 11th August 1947 under the president ship of Juginder Math Mandal. Quaid-e-Azam was selected as president of the country and he during his speech highlighted the guiding lines of Pakistan constitution.
9. Economic problems: Pakistan was not a rich country. There were huge areas of barren desert and high mountains and only one third of the land was cultivated. There was also lack of industries in the areas comprising Pakistan.
10. Geographic and defense problems: East and West Pakistan were over 1600 kilometers apart and there was no communication network between them. Pakistan was worried about the defense of her boundaries from the very first day.
|Question No. 2||Discuss the causes of enforcement of Martial law in 1958?
|Answer:||Martial law was promulgated in Pakistan on 7th October 1958 due to the following causes.
1. Political Disorder: Up to 1957 political conditions of the country had been got worse and because of political differences different ministries were not functioning satisfactorily. Muslim League faced defeat in the lections of 1954 in East Pakistan. Iskander Mirza was active in struggle for power. In East Pakistan Awami League faound that speaker of the provincial assembly was a puppet in the hands of Iskandar Mirza. Awami League withdrew its support and new speaker was elected but after few days he was killed by some members of the assembly. Later on Iskandar Mirza capitalized it fully and promulgated Martial law.
2. Worst economic condition of the country: Political stability is necessary for economic stability of the country which was becoming bad in the country day by day. Pakistan was an agricultural country but even then food items were imported. Smuggling, black marketing and hoarding were at the peak. Pakistani currency was devalued and for the completion of projects Pakistan was dependent on Western countries. Industrial development was also very slow.
3. Worst Trade conditions: Like political and economic conditions trade condition was also hopeless enough. Demand for our goods in the international market was diminishing.
4. Social defects: The effect of political and economic mismanagement in the country was creating the feelings of dissatisfaction. Provincial prejudice was enhancing. Differences between both the parts of Pakistan were creating mental distances, therefore people wished for a solid change.
5. Miscellaneous problems: Along with the weaknesses in the political institutions the sense of responsibility was missing in the bureaucracy and politicians’ role. They were making their own fortunes. The role of judiciary was also not commendable. And the initial problems of Pakistan e.g. refugees rehabilitation, water disputes, Kashmir problem were also unsolved.
|Question No. 3||Throw light on the constitutions of 1956 and 1962 and compare their main points.
|Answer:||Constitution of 1956: After a delay of nine years at last the first constitution of Pakistan was enforced on 23rd March 1956.
Salient features of 1956 constitution:
1. Name of the Country: The name of the country will be “Islamic Republic of Pakistan”.
2. Head of the State: According to the constitution the head of the state will necessarily be a Muslim.
3. Fundamental rights: Constitution conferred equal basic rights to all the citizens. These rights include right of safety, freedom to write and speak, freedom of gathering and right to serve.
4. Right of vote: all the adult citizens were given the right to vote.
5. System of government: Federal and parliamentary form of government was introduced. Head of the state was prime minister but president had the power to dissolve the assembly.
6. Amendment procedure: To amend the constitutional provisions two third majority was necessary.
Due to political, economic and social unrest in the country this constitution was annulled and martial law was imposed on 7th October 1958.
Constitution of 1962: After abrogation of the first constitution of Pakistan, President Iskandar Mirza appointed Chief army staff General Ayub Khan as chief martial law administrator but later Ayub Khan assumed the power.
President Ayub Khan, after the recommendations of constitutional commission and later on constitutional committee, imposed the constitution on 1st March 1962.
Salient features of 1956 constitution:
1. Name of the country: The state was named “The republic of Pakistan” but later on after the protest of assembly members it was amended as “Islamic republic of Pakistan”.
2. Fundamental rights: The original constitution did not contain the list of fundamental rights but later on it was added.
3. Head of the State: head of the state will be a Muslim and no law will be made opposite to Islam.
4. System of Government: presidential form of government was introduced in the country. And president will be elected for 5 years.
5. Federation: The constitution declared Pakistan as one federation consisting of two provinces of East and West Pakistan.
6. National language: both Urdu and Bengali were declared the national languages while English was given the status of Official language.
7. Independence of Judiciary: it was declared that judiciary will be independent.
8. Uni-cameral legislature: Legislature will consist of only one unit that is National assembly. Total seats were equally distributed between East and West Pakistan.
9. Basic Democracy System: election to the office of the president as well as national assembly will be made indirect through Electoral College of B.D. members.
|Question No. 4||What do you know about the government and reforms of General Ayub Khan?|
|Answer:|| After promulgation of martial law it was noticed that general Iskander Mirza was still playing politics. General Ayub Khan compelled him to resign and he took over as the president of Pakistan and setup a strong government at the centre.
The revolution was unique in the sense that it was completely bloodless and it had the backing of the people who were completely frustrated. Ayub announced reforms for the development and prosperity of the country. Main referents were the following:
1. Agricultural reforms (Green Revolution):
a) Government finished all the agricultural feuds.
b) Limit of possession was for any person was fixed.
c) Rights of peasants were safeguarded and forced labour from the tillers was strongly prohibited.
d) The area of the land with the farmer beyond limit was taken into custody by the government and they were given in return the government bonds.
e) Farmers and peasants were given tube wells and tractors on easy loans.
2. Economic reforms: The decade of 1960 is also called the decade of development.
a) New industries were developed and dead industries were redeveloped.
b) National income increased by 30%.
c) Export increased by 7% annually
d) Industrial sector progressed by more than 40%.
e) Agricultural output increased by 15%.
3. Political reforms: General Ayub khan thought that parliamentary system of democracy remained unsuccessful to solve the problems of the people of Pakistan. Ayub khan enforced the Basic Democratic systems in 1959 to introduce a new political system in the country. It was a system of local government. Later on under the constitution of 1962 all the B.D. members adopted the status of an electoral college and thus BD members used to elect the president and members of national and provincial assemblies.
Weakness of the Ayub era:
Besides all these reforms there were certain weaknesses in Ayub government.
1. The BD system was greatly criticized because the members of National and provincial assemblies elected in this manner cannot be called the actual public representatives. This system became a cause of further tension.
2. Twenty two families owned 66% of industries, 80% of banking and 97% of insurance.
3. Industrial workers wages fell by 12%.
4. Benefits for agriculture were given mostly to Punjab and a new class of feudal emerged.
5. Landless peasants were in a worse position than before.
|Question No. 5||Discuss the main points of Muslim family Law ordinance and system of Basic democracies.|
|Answer:||Muslim family Law: One of the important initiative and reforms during the Ayub Khan’s regime was the Muslim Family Law Ordinance. It was enforced on 15th of July 1961. Its main points are the following:
a. Under this ordinance polygamy has been prohibited except under certain conditions.
b. Entry of marriages was made compulsory in the Union Council. Imam and Khateeb were appointed as registrar for entry of marriage in the union council.
c. It has also provided for inheritance of the children of the pre-deceased sons and daughters of the propositus.
d. Traditional method of divorce of three times together was abandoned in the law for divorce and it was given a legal shape.
e. Arbitration councils were established at the Union Council level with the following functions:
a. To make patch-up between wife and husband in case of divorce.
b. Man may be given permission of second marriage when consent of first wife is taken and he can support her.
c. To determine the responsibilities of supporting the wife and children.
System of Basic Democracies: General Ayub khan thought that parliamentary system of democracy remained unsuccessful to solve the problems of the people of Pakistan. He was of the opinion that in a country like Pakistan where on one side there was no political awareness and on the other there was poverty, ignorance and illiteracy so parliamentary system of democracy was not suitable.
Ayub khan enforced the Basic Democratic systems in 1959 to introduce a new political system in the country. It was a system of local government. It had four stages i.e. Union Council, Tehsil Council, District Council, Divisional and provisional council. According to this system, on lower level, in urban or rural area where population consists of 1000 people, they can elect their representatives of a Union council.
Later on under the constitution of 1962 all the B.D. members adopted the status of an electoral college and thus BD members used to elect the president and members of national and provincial assemblies.
The BD system was greatly criticized because the members of National and provincial assemblies elected in this manner cannot be called the actual public representatives. This system became a cause of further tension.
|Question No. 6||What were the causes of the fall of East Pakistan?|
|Answer:||CAUSES OF THE FALL OF EAST PAKISTAN:
East and West Pakistan were 1600Km apart from each other and there was no communication network between them. The people of both these parts had little in common except for their religion. This made governing them as one country extremely difficult.
DIFFERENEC IN THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE:
Due to large distance east and west wings there happened to be a lot of difference in the social structures between the TWO wings. They could not develop understanding with each other. The officers belonging to East Pakistan were very friendly. On the contrary the officers from West Pakistan, when posted in eats Pakistan, had a different attitude towards the people and maintained distance from them. This created a sense of hate against West Pakistan.
REPEATED MARTIAL LAWS:
Ayub Khan’s martial law prevented to establish a suitable parliamentary government in the country. The public leaders believed that martial laws were the real obstacle in the way of establishment of a parliamentary system of government.
After the establishment of Pakistan, only Urdu was adopted as national language, but majority of the East Pakistanis loved their language and literature. After independence when central government declared only Urdu as national language of Pakistan, the people in East Pakistan demonstrated and launched a movement in favour of Bengali. The issue language reached the Bengali nationalism.
East Pakistan wanted complete provincial autonomy, which was not given even though their people demanded for it. This demand was not accepted till India had attacked East Pakistan in 1971.
ECONOMIC DEPRIVATION AND PROPAGANDA:
Awami League Party in Bengal made propaganda that east Pakistanis were deprived of economic equality.
About 10 million Hindus lived in East Pakistan who hatched on international conspiracy against Pakistan. America though not openly but also wished separation of East Pakistan. Russia openly supported India’s aggression against Pakistan.
SHEIKH MUJIB’S MAJORITY IN ELECTION OF 1970:
On winning the majority in the elections of 1970, Sheikh Mujibur-Rehman started increasing his demands, which were ignored by the military junta ruling Pakistan.
MILITARY ACTION IN EAST PAKISTAN:
After the general elections of December 1970, the law and order situation in East Pakistan had gone from bad to worse. Governmetn declared Awami Party illegal and took military action against East Pakistan. This created hatred among Bengalis and they also started armed struggle.
As a result of military actions, leaders of Awami League and a large number of Bengalis escaped to India. India started interfering in the affairs of Pakistan. India termed military action in East Pakistan as an attack on India. On December 16, 1971. East Pakistan became an independent and free state of Bangladesh.
RECOGNITION OF BANGLADESH:
On the occasion of second Islamic Summit Conference which was held in Lahore from 22 to 24, 1947. About 40 depends of Muslim states participated in the conference and to display a sense of brotherhood. Pakistan recognized Bangladesh as an independent state. Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rehman was warmly welcome in Pakistan.
|Objective Type Questions
|Chapter 1||Ideological Basis of Pakistan
1. Ideological 2. Sources 3. Purposeful 4. Islam
5. Sovereignty 6. Universal 7. 14th February 1948
8. Delhi 9. Bahadur Shah Zafar 10. East India Company 11. 1867 12. Indian National Congress
13. 1928 14. Sind Branch 15. Allama Iqbal
|Chapter 2||Making of Pakistan|
1. 1905 2. Molvi Fazal Haq 3. 1939 4. 3
5. Raj Gopal Acharia 6. 454 7. Nehru was selected present of Congress at different occasions (1929-30, 1936-37, 1951-52, 1953-1954) 8. Liaqat Ali Khan 9. Lord Mount Batten
10. 10th June 11. Punjab and Bengal
12. 17th August 1947 13. 1757 14. 1913
|Chapter 3||Land of Pakistan
|1. In which part of South Asia Pakistan is located?
2. What is the total area of Pakistan?
3. What is in the South of Pakistan?
4. Which country is separated by Wakhan strip in the North?
5. What is the length of Pakistan in North South Direction?
6. In which mount range Nanga Parbat is situated?
7. What the height of K-2?
8. Which historical pass is in the Hindukush range?
9. Where is Lake Hamun Masahkhail situated?
10. In which climatic zone Pakistan is situated?
1. North West 2. 796096 SqKm 3. Arabian Sea
4. Tajikistan 5. 1600 km 6. Shiwalik
7. 8611 meters 8. Khyber pass
9. Baluchistan Plateau 10. Sub-Tropical
|Chapter No. 4||History of Pakistan|
1. 1st April 1948 2. 1960 3. Quaid-e-Azam
4. 1600 km 5. Prime Minister 6. 11th Sep 1948
7. 560 8. Security Council
9. 12th March 1949 10. First 11. 7th Oct 1958
12. Oct 1959 13. Ayub Khan
14. Miss Fatima Jinnah 15. Uzbekistan
16. People’s Party 17. 25th March 1969
18. 1965 19. 16th December 1971
20. February 1974