Gateway to Pakistan Studies Class 10 – KPK Text Book Board


Written By Farman Nawaz

(According to the new syllabus of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa Textbook Board)

Short Questions

Chapter 1

Q1 When was the nationalization programme announced and which industries were nationalized?

 

Ans.                Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto introduced different reforms in the country. Through an ordinance in 1972 certain industries were nationalized. These industrial sectors included iron and steel industries, basic metallurgy (metal work), heavy engineering, automobiles and tractor assembling plants, heavy electrical engineering plants, oil and gas refineries.

Dozens of industries in these sectors were nationalized but foreign projects operating in the country were not interfered with. These reforms brought the industries under state control but slowed down the private investment too.

Q2 When did the Federal Sharia Courts came into existence?
Ans              Soon after taking charge Zia proclaimed the enforcement of Islamic Hadood and Tazeraat on February 10, 1979. High Court was to have a Shariat Bench consisting of three Judges and had due powers and could annul any law that it deemed un-Islamic.
Q3. What is meant by Wafaqi Muhtasib?
Ans                For the attainment of the objective of accountability in June 1981 Zia announced the institution of Wafaqi Muhtasib. Anyone who felt aggrieved by any government official or department could seek justice by complaining to the Wafaqi Muhtasib.
Q4 Write note on Geneva Talks.
Ans              After the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan Zia wanted the establishment of a Mujahedeen-run provisional government in Afghanistan but in November 1987 Junejo took the Foreign Ministry from Sahibzada Yaqoob Khan.

An all-parties conference (In which all the political parties including PPP participated) on Afghanistan and Geneva Talks was held to discuss the withdrawal of Soviet troops and establishment of provisional government in Afghanistan.

Q5 Explain the five-points programme of prime minister?
Ans On December 31, 1985 Junejo declared his five points agenda or programme.

1.   Establishment of a stable Islamic democratic system.

2.   The establishment of just economic system.

3.   The eradication of illiteracy and unemployment.

4.   The eradication of injustice and corruption.

5.   The insurance of national security through strong defense and non-aligned foreign policy.

Q6 What do you know about the local governments?
Ans            After proposing the plan for devolution of power to local government institutions on March 23, 2000, Musharaf on August 14, 2000 announced the three-tier character of local government structure. It consisted of union council, Tehsil town council and district council.

The local bodies were to have the prime responsibility for local developments works. The Nazims and Naib Nazims of Union councils were elected directly while those of Tehsil and Districts were elected indirectly. Distrct Nazim headed the district administration. The DCO and DPO were subordinated to District Nazim.

Q7 Write note on the Local Government Ordinance 2005.
Ans                The local governments formed in the Musharaf period completed its tenure in June, 2005. Before holding new local government elections, its rules were amended in consultation with Provincial assemblies. A new Local Government Ordinance 2005 was promulgated. The members of Union Council and number of counciloers were reduced from 21 to 13.
Chapter 2
Q1 What are the fundamental objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy?
Ans Following are the objectives of Pakistan’s foreign policy.

1.   National security: It is the fundamental goal of Pakistan’s foreign policy. Pakistan respects security of other countries and expects the same from them.

2.   Ideological Protection: The protection of Pakistan ideological basis is an important objective of Pakistan’s foreign policy.

3.   Economic development: Economic development is among the country’s top priority.

Q2 Explain the importance of Pakistan geographical locations.
Ans            Because of geo-strategic importance of this region Pakistan plays a key role in world politics. Pakistan is located in the region which is in close proximity to oil and gas producing countries on one side and on the other side emerging powers like China and India which are hungry for energy resources are neighbors of Pakistan. This aspect makes Pakistan a pivot of world politics.

Pakistan is situated at the crossroads of roads and pipelines of the future from central Asia to India and from Arabian sea to China. These important aspects make it an integral part of geo-politics.

Q3 Write a note on the relations between Pakistan and China.
Ans              After communist revolution, China was having difficulties in its international relations. Pakistan recognized China and played a leading role in restoration of China permanent membership in security council of UN.

For the settlement of border disputes between China and Pakistan a treaty was signed in 1963. The same year a trade agreement was also signed.

In defense sector Pakistan and China have strong relationship. JF Thunder 17, Heavy Mechanical complex, Aeronautical complex, and Al-Khalid Tank are its examples.

The Karakuram Highway, Gwadar port, Sandak project, Chitral tunnel, Chasma power plant are the examples of economic cooperation.

Q4 Describe the relationship between Pakistan and Uzbekistan.
Ans Pakistan entered into various agreements with Uzbekistan regarding the promotion of cooperation.

The first agreement was signed in 1992 and now both the countries are cooperating in the energy, banking and communication sections.

Regarding Kashmir issue Uzbekistan view is to settle the issue in accordance with the wishes of the people.

Q5 What is OIC? Why did it come into being?
Ans                OIC stands for Organization of Islamic Conference. It was established in September 1969 in Rabat, in reaction to eruption of fire in Bait-ul-Muqadas. It objectives are as under:

1.   Resolving the problems faced by the Muslim world.

2.   Assistance and support to Liberation Movement of the Palestinian movement.

3.   Protection of Holy Muslim lands.

4.   Protection of the independence and territorial integrity of member states.

Q6 Write note on the role of Pakistan in UN.
Ans          Pakistan became member of UN on September 30, 1947. Since then Pakistan played an active part in UN.

Pakistan army troops have provided services in peace keeping missions of UN. Various UN agencies like UNDP, WFP, WHO, UNICEF, UNESCO, IFAD, and UNHCR have been providing invaluable services to Pakistan in various fields.

Q7 Write note on relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Ans        Pakistan and Afghanistan, besides sharing a long border, are also shares common history, culture and religion. But in spite of this these two countries could not develop friendly relations since Pakistan creation.

The reasons include Afghanistan opposition to Pakistan accession to UN and later on Pakistan’s role during the communist revolution in Afghanistan in 1978 also weaken the relations.

Though Pakistan provided route to Afghanistan to Arabian sea for trade but it was after the success of Mujahedeen in the end of 80’s in Afghanistan that Pakistan established strong and dominating relations with Afghanistan. Whether it was the government of Taliban or now US sponsored governments in Afghanistan, Afghan governments have somehow kept the relations normal with Pakistan.

Chapter 3
Q1. Write a note on mineral oil (crude oil).
Ans          Crude oil or petroleum is one of the world’s most important sources of energy.

It is used in the following ways.

1.   Most of the world transportation is conducted by burning petroleum.

2.   Many industries are run by petroleum.

3.   It is used in thermal power plants.

Q2 Write notes on the following. 1. Natural Gas   2. Coal   3. Agriculture
Ans 1.   Natural Gas: It is important source of energy. It is used in the following ways.

a.   It is normally used for domestic purposes.

b.   It is used fertilizer factories, cement factories, thermal power plants.

2.   Coal: Coal continues to be an important mineral resource. Before the availability of oil and gas coal was used to run factories and railway engines. Still it is used as a domestic fuel to keep the houses warm in cold areas where gas is not available. It is also used in brick making.

3.   Agriculture: Agriculture continues to be the most important sector of Pakistan’s economy. Around 65% of the population is directly or indirectly associated with it.

Agriculture also facilitates livestock raising which in turn contributes to meet the food requirements.

Q3 What are the sources of irrigation in Pakistan? Describe briefly.
Ans Following are the sources of irrigation:

1.   The canal irrigation system: The canal irrigation system expands in many regions of KPK, Punjab and Sindh. Around 70 % of the total cultivated area of Pakistan is irrigated through canal system.

2.   Tube wells: The number of tube wells in the country is tens of thousands.

3.   Wells: The practice of using animal power for drawing water for irrigation is still in place in some parts of the country.

4.   Karez: Karez is a method of irrigation used in some parts of Baluchistan. It is a network of underground water channels.

Q4 What industries are included in the cottage and small scale industries?
Ans              Cottage and small scale industries refer to those industries that rely more on labor than on machines. Some of the important industries falling under this category are carpet industry, metalwork, huzari, juft sazi, sports goods, surgical instruments, plastic goods, carpentry, and leather goods.
Q5 What is meant by imports? What are Pakistan’s major imports?
Ans              The items that a country buys from other countries are called imports. Pakistan major imports include automobile and its parts, chemicals, fertilizers, machine, machinery, iron, petroleum, industrial raw material, stationary, cooking oil, tea, weapons and defense technology.
Q6 What is meant by exports? What are Pakistan’s major exports?
Ans              The items that a country sells to other countries are called exports. Pakistan’s major exports include cotton, cloth, garments, woolen products, rugs, fish, rice, vegetables and fruits.
Q7 Write note on Pakistan’s major seaports.
Ans 1.   Karachi port: Karachi port is the oldest in Pakistan. It provides the need of international trade of Pakistan and neighboring countries like Afghanistan and central Asian countries.

2.   Bin Qasim port: In view of steel mill and country’s growing international trade a new ort, The Bin Qasim was built some 35 Kilometers west of Karachi.

3.   Gawadar Port: Gawadar port in Baluchistan was built with Chinese cooperation. With the passage of time this port is expected to assume a greater role in the country’s international trade.

Chapter 4
Q1 What is the ratio of Urban and rural population in Pakistan?
Ans            Around 66% of the Pakistan’s total population lives in rural areas. The remaining 34% lives in urban areas.
Q2 Describe the demographic makeup of Pakistani population on the basis of gender.

 

Ans
Age group in years Men %age Women %age
Up to 14 43.1 43.2
15-64 53.3 53.6
65 and above 3.6 3.2
 

Q3

 

Write not on the Punjabi culture.

Ans        In Punjab, the most fertile region of the area, Punjabi is the widely spoken language, followed by Seraiki. Ludi dance, horse riding, passion for food, devotion to Sufism, love for fold literature and storytales like Heer Ranja, Sohni Mahiwal, Mirza Sahiba are all features of the culture of Punjab.
Q4 What do you know about Sindhi Culture?
Ans            Sindhi is the most widely spoken language of the province. Agriculture and fishing are the traditional professions of the people. Malakrha, bull racing, embroidery, kalah and lungi, long mustaches, Sindhi topi, ajrak, bangles are some of the cultural indications of Sindhi men and women. Hospitality and Jirga are also part of Sindhi culture.
Q5 What do you know about the art and craft of Pakistan?
Ans          Pakistanis are skilled craftsmen. The objects of art in the museums at Peshawar, Lahore, Taxila, Haiderabad, and Karachi reflect the craftsmanship of the forefathers of us.

Crafting various metals into jewelry and utensils is centuries old art of the region. This art is still in use in many ways in the present age. But with the passage of time new techniques and needs of the market are the hindrances in the promotion of the old skills.

Q6 Write notes on the following: a. Dress b. Marriage customs
Ans Dress: Pakistan’s national dress is simple but graceful. Men wear shalwar and Kameez or Kurta. Men also use traditional caps and turbans. Women also wear shlawar kameez in addition to Chadar. Provincial dresses with some difference somehow similar to national dress.

Marriage customs: Though marriage ceremonies have Islamic touch in it but still local cultures are also part of it. Marriages are celebrated with due pomp. Feasts are arranged according to the status of the people. Music is now an essential part of marriages. But certain customs like dowry and price of the bride are negatively affecting the society.

Q7 Write a note on Urdu language.
Ans            Urdu is the national language of Pakistan. It is a word of Turkish origin meaning army. Urdu evolved as a result of interaction between local Indians and Muslims who came to India. Urdu borrowed many words from Arabic, Persian, Turkish and regional languages of India. And still Urdu is in state of evolution.
Q8 What do you know about the history of Hindko language?
Ans              Hindko is spoken and understood in parts of KPK. Hindko predates to the Aryan invasion of subcontinent. A writing found at Taxila is written in languages that has similarities with the present day Hindko.
Q9 How is the population growth affecting the state of health services in the country?
Ans          The state of health services in Pakistan is poor. That is why infant mortality rate and average life expectancy are affected.

Besides other factors affecting the health services, over population is also affecting it. The health service projects started for 20 thousand population, after completion has to satisfy double or triple number of people. The same is the case with other projects like education.

Long Questions

Chapter 1

Q1. Write a comprehensive note on the reforms introduced by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto.
Ans            Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto used his unlimited powers for the introduction of reforms in the country. Some of the major reforms are described below.

A. Economic Reforms:

1.   Many essential commodities were    subsidized to bring the prices low down.

2.   Farmers were provided with seeds, fertilizers and tractors on low rates.

3.   Crops were purchased from farmers on better rates.

4.   The pay, pension and benefits of government servants were revised.

B. Labor Reforms: To protect the rights of workers labor laws were enacted in the country for the first time.

1.   Workers were entitled to free medical care and payment in case of injury.

2.   Workers were given the right of over time.

3.   Old age pension, insurance and bonus were made compulsory.

4.   Labor movements and trade unions were protected.

5.   Labor courts were authorized to handle the dismissal cases of workers.

C. Industrial Reforms: Through an ordinance in 1972 certain industries were nationalized. These industrial sectors included iron and steel industries, basic metallurgy (metal work), heavy engineering, automobiles and tractor assembling plants, heavy electrical engineering plants, oil and gas refineries.

Dozens of industries in these sectors were nationalized but foreign projects operating in the country were not interfered with. These reforms brought the industries under state control but slowed down the private investment too.

D. Life Insurance and Banking: All the Life insurance companies were nationalized to form the State Life Insurance Corporation in November 1972. Similarly all the banks of Pakistan were nationalized and put under the control of State Bank of Pakistan.

E. Educational Institutions: Free education was provided in the schools which were nationalized. But as some schools were still in private hands that’s why class differences appeared in education.

F. Agricultural Reforms:

1.   The upper limit of landownership was reduced from 500 acres to 150 acres for irrigated land and from 1000 acres to 300 acres for arid land. The extra land beyond this limit was distributed among peasants.

2.   Removal of tenants was prohibited.

3.   The tenants were allowed to purchase land form the landlords.

4.   It was declared that provision of the seed and water was the responsibility of the owner.

Q2 What are the main points of the 1973 Constitution?
Ans The constitution of 1973 was enforced on August 14, 1973. Following are the salient features of the constitution.

1.   Federal System of Government: According to the constitution the Pakistan will be a federal state consisting of four provinces, the federal capital, FATA and Northern areas.

2.   Parliamentary System: The system of the government will be parliamentary. Prime Minister will be the head of the government and responsible to the parliament.

3.   Bicameral Parliament: The parliament will consist of two houses that is National Assembly and Senate.

4.   State Religion: Islam will be the state religion.

5.   Religion of the Head of the state and Head of the Government: President and Prime Minster are obliged to be Muslims.

6.   Islamic Ideological Council: To make the existing and future laws Islamic in nature, an Islamic Ideological Council was formed.

7.   Preamble of the constitution: Objective Resolution was made the preamble of the constitution.

8.   Fundamental Rights: The parliament is not allowed to enact such laws which are against the fundamental rights of the people.

9.   Constitutional amendment: Constitution can be amended by two third majority in both the houses of the parliament.

10.       Independent Judiciary: The constitution guarantees the independence of the Judiciary from the executive.

11.       Direct Election: The National assembly and all the provincial assemblies are elected for a period of five years through direct elections.

12.       National Language: Urdu is recognized as the national language.

Q3 Give a detailed account of the efforts made by Zia for the enforcement of Islamic laws in Pakistan.
Ans Soon after talking charge of the state machinery, Zia announced the enforcement of Islamic Hudood and Tazeerat on February 10, 1979.

The steps taken for the Islamization of society under Zia regime are as under:

1.           Hadood Ordinance: The punishment prescribed by the Shariah for certain acts like drinking, adultery, theft and false allegation were enforced.

2.           Zakat and Usher Ordinance: On June 20, 1980, Zakat and Usher Ordinance were enforced which authorized banks to deduce Zakat from accounts.

3.           Zakat Foundation: in February 1982, The Zakat Foundation was established to train the deserving people to end their dependency on Zakat.

4.           Federal Shariat Court: Soon after taking charge Zia proclaimed the enforcement of Islamic Hadood and Tazeraat on February 10, 1979.  High Court was to have a Shariat Bench consisting of three Judges and had due powers and could annul any law that it deemed un-Islamic.

5.           Blasphemy Act: Article 298 of the constitution was amended. Anyone found guilty of bad language towards the Prophet or companions Prophet could be punished to three years of rigorous punishments or fine or both.

6.           Pakistan Studies and Islamic Studies as compulsory subjects:   Up till graduate level the instruction of Pakistan studies and Islamic Studies was made compulsory.

7.           Ramazan Ordinance: In 1981 the respect of Ramazan Ordinance was promulgated which banned smoking, eating, and drinking by all Muslims in public places. Violation could result in punishment of three months imprisonment, fine or both.

8.           Wafaqi Muhtasib: For the attainment of the objective of accountability in June 1981 Zia announced the institution of Wafaqi Muhtasib. Anyone who felt aggrieved by any government official or department could seek justice by complaining to the Wafaqi Muhtasib. Majlis Shura: For the forging of better links between the government and the masses in December 1981, Zia announced the creation of Majlis Shura. Its role was that of catalyst for accelerating the smooth transition towards an Islamic democratic social order.

9.           Interest Free Banking: Interest Free Banking was introduced for freeing the economic system of the curse or Usury.

Q4. Write a note on both the governments of Benazir Bhutto.
Ans Benazir First Term in Office (1988-90): Benazir took oath as Prime Minister on December 2, 1988. In her first public statement she assured the nation the government will follow the path of peace, freedom, unity and reconciliation. She took the following steps:

1.   Efforts were made to establish better relations with USA and USSR.

2.   To Enhance freedom of press the National Press Trust was dissolved.

3.   Political prisoners were freed.

4.   The ban on trade unions was lifted.

5.   Benazir and Rajiv Gandhi signed an agreement on not striking the nuclear installations of each other.

6.   To improve social welfare and development at grass root level People’s Works Program was started.

On August 6, 1990 the President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dissolved the National assembly on the charges of corruption and misuse of power.

Benazir 2nd Term in Office (1993-96):  on October 19, 1993, Benazir took oath as PM for the second time. This time she was adopted a cautious approach.

1.   The cabinet was formed with utmost care.

2.   Her relations with bureaucracy were accommodating.

3.   Press enjoyed remarkable freedom.

4.   Efforts were made to reduce unemployment, improve the rate of literacy, eliminating load shedding, improve the state of healthcare, eradicating drug trafficking, crime and terrorism, and review of foreign policy.

Despite all these efforts, PPP worsening relations with MQM, Nawaz Sharif and Supreme Court brought the situation to the point that President Farooq Ahmad Khan had to exercise the article 58 (2) B to dissolve the National Assembly.

A5 What do you know about Nawaz Shareef’s first government?
Ans Nawaz Sharif First Term in Office (1990-93): Nawaz Sharif took the oath as Prime Minister on November 6, 1990. The following steps were taken in his government.

1.   On January 27, 1991 India and Pakistan renewed the agreement on not attacking each other’s nuclear installations.

2.   NFC National Finance Commission was setup to distribute the resources between federation and provinces.

3.   In 1991 IRSA Indus River System Authority was formed to resolve the water distribution issue.

4.   To privatize those institutes which were running in loss, a privatization commission was setup on January 22, 1991.

5.   Reforms were introduced to increase foreign exchange.

6.   Agricultural reforms were introduced to develop agriculture.

7.   Shariat Bill 1991 was passed from National Assembly.

8.   Bait-ul-Mal was established to help the poor.

9.   Self-employment scheme was launched to provide loans to unemployed people.

10.       Labour policy was announced which enabled government servants from grade 1 to 16 to receive general allowance.

11.       Islamabad-Lahore motorway was conceived.

12.       Public Transport Program was started and people were provided road transport vehicles on easy installments.

Differences between Nawaz Sharif and president on the appointment of Chief of Army Staff and Eighteen Amendment Bill led to the dissolution of assemblies. Though court restored the assemblies but again the indirect arbitration of military caused in resignation of the president and dissolution of assemblies.

Q6 Write a comprehensive note on the regime of General Pervez Musharraf.
Ans          Musharraf regime commenced on October 12, 1999 when he overthrew the government of Nawaz Shareef. He assumed the title of Chief Executive till June 19, 2001. On June 20, 2001, Musharraf removed Rafiq Ahmad Tarrar from the presidency and assumed this position himself.

Major events and steps in Musharaf period.

1.           Local Government Structure:

a.   After proposing the plan for devolution of power to local government institutions on March 23, 2000, Musharaf on August 14, 2000 announced the three-tier character of local government structure. It consisted of union council, Tehsil town council and district council. The local bodies were to have the prime responsibility for local developments works.  The Nazims and Naib Nazims of Union councils were elected directly while those of Tehsil and Districts were elected indirectly. Distrct Nazim headed the district administration. The DCO and DPO were subordinated to District Nazim.

b.   The local governments formed in the Musharaf period completed its tenure in June, 2005. Before holding new local government elections, its rules were amended in consultation with Provincial assemblies. A new Local Government Ordinance 2005 was promulgated. The members of Union Council and number of counciloers were reduced from 21 to 13.

2.           Referendum: 2002: On April 30, 2002, the election commission announced to hold referendum on the question of election the Chief Executive, General Pervz Musharaf, as president of Pakistan for five years.

3.           Legal Framework Order 2002: On August 21, 2002, Mushraf issued the legal framework order according to which the president would invite the nominees of majority party in the national assembly to take charge as Prime Minister. The LFO empowers the president to amend the constitution such that the constitutional amendment cannot be challenged in any court.

4.           General Elections 2002: General Elections were held throughout the country on October 10, 2002. PML (Q) emerged as the party with the largest number of seats in the National assembly. PPP was the second largest party in the National Assembly.

5.           Policies of Moderation: The Musharraf government also perused policies of moderate and enlightened Islam by passing the Women Rights Bill and by attempting to bring women into mainstream politics of the country. Similarly by offering all possible support to the United States in the war against terrorism, Musharraf projected the image of Pakistan as peace loving country.

6.           Industrialization and Privatization: Foreign and local investment increased particularly in the telecommunication and automobile sectors. Privatization of state owned institutions also catalyzed economic growth.

7.           Taxation: Tax rate was reduced while tax net was increased.

8.           Reforms in Educational Sector: HEC Higher Education Commission was setup with the objective to promote higher education by introducing foreign and local scholarships.

9.           Computerization of National Database: The Introduction of Computerized National identity Card helped to improve the holding of censuses.

Chapter 2
Q1 Write a note on the importance of Pakistan relations with its neighboring countries.
Ans      A country’s good relations with neighboring countries provide an opportunity to the nation to concentrate on the inner issues of the state on one side and to promote trade relations with the neighboring countries and to get their support on international issues on the other side.

Pakistan relations with China:               After communist revolution, China was having difficulties in its international relations. Pakistan recognized China and played a leading role in restoration of China permanent membership in security council of UN.

For the settlement of border disputes between China and Pakistan a treaty was signed in 1963. The same year a trade agreement was also signed.

In defense sector Pakistan and China have strong relationship. JF Thunder 17, Heavy Mechanical complex, Aeronautical complex, and Al-Khalid Tank are its examples.

The Karakuram Highway, Gwadar port, Sandak project, Chitral tunnel, Chasma power plant are the examples of economic cooperation.

Pakistan relations with Afghanistan:   Pakistan and Afghanistan, besides sharing a long border, are also shares common history, culture and religion. But in spite of this these two countries could not develop friendly relations since Pakistan creation.

The reasons include Afghanistan opposition to Pakistan accession to UN and later on Pakistan’s role during the communist revolution in Afghanistan in 1978 also weaken the relations.

Though Pakistan provided route to Afghanistan to Arabian sea for trade but it was after the success of Mujahedeen in the end of 80’s in Afghanistan that Pakistan established strong and dominating relations with Afghanistan.  Whether it was the government of Taliban or now US sponsored governments in Afghanistan, Afghan governments have somehow kept the relations normal with Pakistan.

Pakistan relations with India:  The relations between Pakistan and India have been strained right from independence because of Kashmir issue. This issue has brought the two neighbors to the point that so far three full-fledged wars are fought. Though it is promiced

Pakistan relations with Iran:    Rest of the questions are still in typing process.

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